The Administrative Hearing Commission (AHC) is comprised of up to five administrative judges, who hold the title “Commissioner.” The Commissioners are required to be members of the Missouri Bar and are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate. The Commissioners do not sit as a panel. Instead each Commissioner is assigned to hear and decide cases. All decisions are subject to judicial review, with certain tax issues reviewed directly by the Missouri Supreme Court. Commissioners conduct hearings and issue decisions in cases involving a state agency and private citizen or private entity and also hear disputes in motor vehicle franchises. Each Commissioner conducts contested case hearings, similar to a trial court, and has the power to administer oaths, make rulings on evidentiary objections, weigh the factual evidence that the parties provide, and render legal and factual determinations, as any trial judge. Commissioners exercise authority over the matters pending before them and operate independently from the state agencies that are involved in a particular dispute.

The AHC has statutory authority in over 100 specified matters including state sales tax, professional licensing, medical marijuana licensing, Medicaid provider issues, due process cases under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), certain environmental matters, and has constitutional authority to hear medical marijuana license appeals.